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Case 4



1.    Dodge JA, Eltabbakh GH, Mount SL, Walker RP, Morgan A. Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 363-369.


2.    Brinton LA, Nasca PC, Mallin K, Schairer C, Rosenthal J, Rothenberg R, Yordan E Jr, Richart RM. Case-control study of in situ and invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 1990; 38: 49-54.


3.    Zeligs KP, Byrd K, Tarney CM, Howard RS, Sims BD, Hamilton CA, Stany MP. A clinicopathologic study of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 122: 1223-1230.


4.    Rome RM, England PG. Management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: A series of 132 cases with long-term follow-up. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2000; 10: 382-390.


5.    Wee WW, Chia YN, Yam PK. Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012; 117: 15-17.


6.    Audet-Lapointe P, Body G, Vauclair R, Drouin P, Ayoub J. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 1990; 36: 232-239.


7.    Buck HW, Guth KJ. Treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (primarily low grade) with imiquimod 5% cream. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2003; 7: 290-293.


8.    Gurumurthy M, Cruickshank ME. Management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2012; 16: 306-312.



9.    Graham K, Wright K, Cadwallader B, Reed NS, Symonds RP. 20-year retrospective review of medium dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy in VAIN3. Gynecol Oncol 2007; 106: 105-111.


10. Blanchard P, Monnier L, Dumas I, Morice P, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Azoury F, Mazeron R, Haie-Meder C. Low-dose-rate definitive brachytherapy for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Oncologist 2011; 16: 182-188. 


11. Lin H, Huang EY, Chang HY, ChangChien CC. Therapeutic effect of topical applications of trichloroacetic acid for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia after hysterectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2005; 35: 651-654.


12. Krebs HB, Helmkamp BF. Chronic ulcerations following topical therapy with 5-fluorouracil for vaginal human papillomavirus-associated lesions. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 205-208.


13. Diakomanolis E, Rodolakis A, Boulgaris Z, Blachos G, Michalas S. Treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia with laser ablation and upper vaginectomy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2002; 54: 17-20.


14. Kim HS, Park NH, Park IA, Park JH, Chung HH, Kim JW, Song YS, Kang SB. Risk factors for recurrence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in the vaginal vault after laser vaporization. Lasers Surg Med 2009; 41: 196-202.


15. Sillman FH, Fruchter RG, Chen YS, Camilien L, Sedlis A, McTigue E. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: risk factors for persistence, recurrence, and invasion and its management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176): 93-99.


16. Hoffman MS, DeCesare SL, Roberts WS, Fiorica JV, Finan MA, Cavanagh D. Upper vaginectomy for in situ and occult, superficially invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166: 30-33.


17. Liao JB, Jean S, Wilkinson-Ryan I, Ford AE, Tanyi JL, Hagemann AR, Lin LL, McGrath CM, Rubin SC. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) after radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies: a clinically recalcitrant entity. Gynecol Oncol 2011; 120: 108-112.



We would like to thank Dr Lee Ho Sze Jacqueline from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prince of Wales Hospital for providing comment and photo.


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