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Case 3


1.   Gay JD, Donaldson LD, Goellner JR. False-negative results in cervical cytologic studies. Acta Cytol 1985; 29: 1043-1046.

2.   Dalstein V, Riethmuller D, Prétet JL, Le Bail Carval K, Sautière JL, Carbillet JP, Kantelip B, Schaal JP, Mougin C. Persistence and load of high-risk HPV are predictors for development of high-grade cervical lesions; a longitudinal French cohort study. Int J Cancer 2003; 106: 396-403.

3.   Nieminen P, Vuorma S, Viikki M, Hakama M, Anttila A. Comparison of HPV test versus conventional and automation-assisted Pap screening as potential screening tools for preventing cervical cancer. BJOG 2004; 111:  842-848.

4.   Katki HA, Kinney WK, Fetterman B, Lorey T, Poitras NE, Cheung L, Demuth F, Schiffman M, Wacholder S, Castle PE. Cervical cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: a population-based study in routine clinical practice. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12: 663-672.

5.   2012 Updated Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Abnormal Cervical Cancer, Screening Tests and Cancer Precursors. 2012 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines Conference

6.   Cox JT, Castle PE, Behrens CM, Sharma A, Wright TC Jr, Cuzick J; Athena HPV Study Group. Comparison of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating different combinations of cytology, HPV testing, and genotyping for HPV 16/18: results from the ATHENA HPV study. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 2013; 208: 184,e1-11.



We would like to thank Dr. Carmen Diana Chung from the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital for providing comment and photo.


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